Baking Bread with the Romans: Part I – Pliny the Elder’s Leaven

A Day in the Life of a Roman Bread Bakery

Give us this day our daily bread — and a good bread starter is what we need to make it. But what’s a bread starter, you say? A bread starter, pasta madre, or levain, is what we have used to make bread for millenia long before active dry (instant granulated) baker’s yeast made its way into our pantries. Our foremothers and forefathers didn’t have quick-rise instant yeast packets at their disposal until the 20th century (AD), so prior to this time they had a much more historical and natural method for making leavened breads: Leaven. We know this from early documentary records such as Pliny the Elder’s ‘Naturalis Historia’ (77 AD) which tells us about early Roman bread-making practices, among many other things. But before we move on to Pliny’s references and the recipe for leaven, let’s delve into the history of bread-making a bit more.

Cereal grains have been a staple in the human diet for over 14,000 years and evidence of early cereal grass cultivation and domestication has been detected in the archaeological record as far back as 8,000 BC in the Levant, or what is now present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine and Turkey. Farming and grain cultivation was one of the early hallmarks of the Neolithic Revolution which saw hunter-gatherer societies in the Levant begin to adopt sedentary (non-nomadic) lifestyles along with early farming and animal husbandry practices. It was during these early stages of the Neolithic Revolution that hybrid hunter/gatherer/sedentary societies learned to harvest and grind wild cereal grains such as einkorn, barley, rye, as well as legumes… and our taste for bread was born. Farmed in the Levant, einkorn was the first cereal grain to be domesticated; being a coarser and hulled grain, it would have produced very filling porridges and unleavened flat-breads for these early populations. As domestication of cereal grains continued throughout history, preferred strains, such as free-threshing wheat, would be favoured and cultivated more frequently, eventually leading to the grains that we bake bread with today.

The use of leavening agents in early bread-making was something that came along much further in the evolution of bread.  Along with early beer-making, the ancient Egyptians are often credited with being the first civilization to ferment dough and bake leavened loaves in clay ovens, as opposed to over fire-pits, in hearths, or with the use of hot ashes, stones, sherds or tiles. This fermented dough, or leaven, would be the fundamental ingredient for making leavened breads for millenia to come and we have a written record of its use in the Classical Mediterranean through Pliny the Elder’s ‘Naturalis Historia‘ (77 AD).

Who is Pliny the Elder? Gaius Plinius Secundus (24 AD – 79 AD) was born in Gaul to a wealthy Roman family. He was a naturalist, a naval commander, and fundamental personality in Roman history, well known for his writing about science, nature, literature and critical events in Roman history. Pliny’s interest in science and nature saw him create a 37 book compilation titled ‘Naturalis Historia’ in 77 AD which remains one of only a few intact Roman historical documents covering diverse topics from the Roman daily life and environment such as botany, warfare, astronomy, biology, art, and food. Pliny’s passion for Roman life, the land and the environment that he lived in eventually lead to his death by the hand of none other than Mount Vesuvius during a rescue mission in the Bay of Naples following the eruption at Pompeii in 79 AD. His writings continue to be referred to in archaeological and historical research to this day.

In his writings, Naturalis Historia, Pliny makes reference to leaven used in bread baking in the following passages:

Naturalis Historia (Natural Hisotry) Book XVIII.26:

Millet is more particularly employed for making leaven; and if kneaded with must, it will keep a whole year. The same is done, too, with the fine wheat-bran of the best quality; it is kneaded with white must three days old, and then dried in the sun, after which it is made into small cakes. When required for making bread, these cakes are first soaked in water, and then boiled with the finest spelt flour, after which the whole is mixed up with the meal; and it is generally thought that this is the best method of making bread. The Greeks have established a rule that for a modius of meal eight ounces of leaven is enough.

These kinds of leaven, however, can only be made at the time of vintage, but there is another leaven which may be prepared with barley and water, at any time it may happen to be required. It is first made up into cakes of two pounds in weight, and these are then baked upon a hot hearth, or else in an earthen dish upon hot ashes and charcoal, being left till they turn of a reddish brown. When this is done, the cakes are shut close in vessels, until they turn quite sour: when wanted for leaven, they are steeped in water first. When barley bread used to be made, it was leavened with the meal of the fitch, or else the chicheling vetch, the proportion being, two pounds of leaven to two modii and a half of barley meal. At the present day, however, the leaven is prepared from the meal that is used for making the bread. For this purpose, some of the meal is kneaded before adding the salt, and is then boiled to the consistency of porridge, and left till it begins to turn sour. In most cases, however, they do not warm it at all, but only make use of a little of the dough that has been kept from the day before. It is very evident that the principle which causes the dough to rise is of an acid nature, and it is equally evident that those persons who are dieted upon fermented bread are stronger in body. Among the ancients, too, it was generally thought that the heavier wheat is, the more wholesome it is.

(Translation from original latin from: Perseus at

An interesting aspect of Pliny’s reference to leaven is that he mentions that dough kept from bread dough the day before can be used to make bread the following day. This isn’t a practice that we see much nowadays, is it? Why? Because we have refrigerators. Roman bakers of yore had no method to keep a permanent starter from going bad if left out for longer than a few days. This is why Pliny refers to drying the leaven into cakes that can be hydrated later, or using dough from the day before. Taking this into consideration, along with the fact that bread was baked daily, makes this early method of starter regeneration a very sensible method in keeping the yeasts and lactobacilli alive and working. In a modern context, however, we feed our starters and keep them in the fridge or in a cool place in the pantry. You can also try dehydrating the leaven by painting it onto thin sheets of parchment paper, allowing it to dry, and keeping the sheets or flakes in an air-tight container to be reconstituted later on with water.

Note: This recipe calls for millet flour or whole wheat flour (wheat bran, as referred to by Pliny). If you cannot find millet flour, feel free to simply use the whole wheat option. You may also use barley flour. Also, it’s important to note that the leaven is a source of fermentation for future bread loaves and the gluten content in the starter isn’t as critical as it would be for the bread dough itself. If you choose to use millet flour in your leaven you can then feed it with wheat flour or millet flour, going forward. For a glutinous loaf of bread, however, you will have to use wheat flours for the bread dough.

So with that said, let’s roll up our sleeves and get started!

Pliny the Elder’s Leaven

Making your own leaven (starter) for the first time may seem like a daunting task but it’s not, it just requires you to pay attention to it during the first few days.  A bread starter can take 2 to 5 days to cultivate depending on the temperature inside your home.  Follow these easy steps, keep an eye on the little fella, and you should have a very successful starter that will serve you well for years to come!  After you have created this leaven, maintaining it should be fairly easy as you take from it and feed it week by week as you bake.


  • 2 cups of millet or whole wheat flour
  • 2 cups of grapes (rinsed)
  • 2 cups of tepid water
  • Cheesecloth
Pliny the Elder’s Leaven Recipe

Step 1. Rinse the grapes thoroughly and tie them into a cheesecloth pouch.  In a bowl, smash them gently with your palm or fist and drain out the liquid, keeping the must (grape skins) and pulp inside the cloth.  Drain the excess liquid by giving the pouch one last squeeze and then place it into a bowl with the flour.  Add the tepid water and mix it with the flour, burying the pouch of grapes in it.  Cover with a lid, or a damp cloth, and leave it sit in a warm place for 1 to 2 days.  I placed my container in a cupboard above the refrigerator where it was warm but not too warm.  Note: I also found it important to keep the container as air-tight as possible.

Step 2. Check on your leaven.  When the starter has begun fermenting, bubbles will appear in the mixture. When this happens, pull the grape pouch out and dispose of them. Have a quick look at the starter to make sure there is no white fuzz or black mould forming: this will occur if air comes in contact during the start-up phase or if the starter has been left too long unattended.  If you have fuzz or mould on the surface, throw it out and go back to Step 1.

After you remove the grapes, pour the mixture into a fresh, clean container and feed your starter with 1/2 cup of flour and 1/2 cup of tepid water. Give it a stir, cover it again and put it in the cupboard for another 1 to 2 days.

Step 3.  Check on your leaven again.  At this stage you may start to see hooch (alcohol) forming on the top, a dark boozy liquid that smells strong and is quite normal to the process.  Don’t dispose of the hooch, just stir it back in to the starter and let it do its job. Note: If you find hooch or a liquid layer forming on the top of your starter and this mixture is too wet, top it off with 1/4 cup of flour. I find that hooch usually means the mix needs a bit more to eat!  The starter will usually react by becoming active again if you do this.

Step 4.  After 4 to 5 days you should be seeing significant growth and bubbles forming, like in the photo below.  The starter is now ready for use.

Pliny the Elder’s Leavan – Bread Starter

Step 5.  Cover it and store it in the refrigerator or in a cool place from now on.  When using it to bake, if you use one cup of the leaven for your recipe always put in what you take out:  One cup of leaven out=1 cup of flour and 1/2 cup tepid water put back in.  Two parts flour and one part water seems to make a good consistency when feeding.  Note: You should always have at least 2 cups of leaven on reserve for future baking projects.  When using the starter for baking, pull it out of the fridge the night before and activate it by feeding it the night before. Store the remaining leaven in your fridge in a fresh, clean container after every use.

Important!  Don’t forget to feed your leaven often.  To keep the yeast growing, it needs fresh wheat to our and water to eat from time to time.  As it eats, it produces more bubbles and gas, just like when a baby eats!  In fact, I was told by a good friend of mine in Rome, Angelo the baker, that you should really treat your starter like a living thing and give it a name.  It needs to be loved, fed and kept alive, afterall.  So let’s go ahead and name this leaven ‘Pliny’.  What will you name your starter, I wonder?

If the first attempt at this recipe fails, do not despair or give up. It will succeed and it will work just fine. In fact, I can attest to the fact that once you grow your own leaven, you will not return to using instant granulated yeast again. It is an incredibly rewarding exercise and the quality of the bread produced changes dramatically, becoming richer and tangier in flavour, and chewier in texture. As proof as to how healthy and robust this leaven is, put your speakers or headphones on and watch the video below. This is how hearty our ‘Pliny’ is. Now imagine how well it will produce a leavened loaf of Roman bread? We’ll get to that very soon, I promise.

Note: This recipe is the first part of a two-part series; a bread recipe for Roman bread will follow next week. The bread recipe can be prepared with this leaven after about a week, once the leaven has matured and been fed. A link to the bread recipe will be posted on this page, and on the front page of our site, as soon as it is published.

Cena bene and good eating to you!

Please feel free to leave comments or suggestions about this recipe below.


  1. Stumbled across this website and was delighted to find the recipes. I decided to try Pliny the Elder’s Leaven two days ago. When I first put this together I used a ceramic container and just put the lid on. I put it in the oven (with a note outside to NOT turn on the oven!) so I could keep the temperature consistent since hubby has a bad habit of leaving the back door ajar even when it is cold outside. The next day I already had the hooch on top and just a bit of bubbling which I stirred in and added 1/4 cup flour but left the grape bundle in for a couple more hours to be sure it was doing what it should. It had a lot more bubbles then so I removed the bundle and moved it to a new clean container and fed it with the 1/2 cup flour and 1/2 cup tepid water. This time I put plastic wrap over the mouth of the container before putting it back in the oven overnight. This morning It had lots of lovely bubbles and looks strong and healthy and had increased in size so I am thinking making it more air-tight with the plastic wrap over the mouth of the container along with the lid really helped. I named mine Fortitudo because it seems to be strong! I am wondering if I can use it now – its been 3 days since I started this – or should I wait until it has matured a bit more for better flavor. I am excited to make the Panis Quadratus first.

    • Farrell Monaco

      Bubbles are good! Mold is bad. That’s the rule. Feed it a few times before using it. You’ll have a handle on it before long. Building a relationship with the starter and knowing its health and behavior is part of the process!

  2. Kurt Rosenbaum

    I was a little concerned that my starter wasn’t starting. Took just a little over 24 hours for the fermentation to start. After I discarded the cheesecloth and crushed grapes, added more water and flour, “Fritz” was born. Named it after my Grandfather who’s trade in Germany was as a baker. Giving Fritz another day, baking the loaf tomorrow. So excited.

  3. Hi
    How long does the starter stay good in the refrigerator? I want to make some French Sourdough bread. I’ve never baked anything so this is going to be a real learning experience.


    Frank Z

    • Farrell Monaco

      Quite a long time, Frank! I’ve only ever had one starter go bad on me. Some have been left in the fridge for over a year. You want to make sure they develop a good layer of grey hooch (booze) to protect the surface from mould. Perfectly normal (and good) to see hooch on your starter.

  4. “Drain the excess liquid by giving the pouch one last squeeze, then place it into a bowl with the flour.”

    Does “it” refer to just the pouch full of smashed grapes, or to the liquid that’s been squeezed out? Is the liquid discarded? Please advise.

  5. Catherine Soukup

    Hi, checking for clarification. I’m only at step 2 but want to be prepared. In step 5 it states, if using for baking, take out night before & feed night before. store remaining in fridge. Am I only feeding what the recipe calls for ? Or, do I feed all of it & then pull out what I need for recipe & let that activate on counter overnight? Sorry, but this is the 1st time I am making starter!
    Thank you!

    • Farrell Monaco

      Hi Catherine! No need to stress about this too much. Starters are resilient. You can feed the entire thing… scoop out what you need… and then put the rest back in the fridge, The key things to remember are to refrigerate the starter between bakings and feed it the day before and leave it out on the counter for the feeding. It needs to be at rooms temperature. Sometimes, if it’s sat in the fridge for a long period of time, you may need to feed it two days in a row to wake it up. You’ll get a handle on all of this once you get to know your starter. Oh! Don’t forget to name it. 🙂 – Farrell

  6. Can this starter be used to make any type of bread? I am new at learning to make bread. I really loved that I was able to find your page since I been trying to find information of making bread without the use if instant yeast

  7. Ilana Bar-Hai

    How much do you feed it? Just flour and does it need to be millet, or also tepid water? And do you have to feed it every day? I just mixed in some hooch that formed.

    • Farrell Monaco

      Hi Ilana! There’s no need to stress about feeding the starter. He needs to be fed before you use him and he’ll go dormant in between. If he’s been dormant in the fridge for a while, feed him two days in a row to liven him up. Leave him out on the counter to feed him and let him grow overnight. I feed 50/50 flour and water depending on what you’re making. I use tepid water. No worries if it’s cool though… just don’t use boiling! Refined flour and whole wheat flour are just fine. Millet is only one option that Pliny used but the archaeological evidence in the bakeries is bread wheat… so that’s what I use! – Farrell

  8. I’ve tried this a few times now and managed to mess something up. When I crush the grapes I am removing most of the liquid, but I’m wondering if I’m not removing enough? The leaven has a small amount of liquid that looks to have separated in the first few days, before coming alive. After I feed it the first time it seems to die…any hints? Should the grapes be 100% dry? Should I just add more flour? What gives?!?!?!

    • Farrell Monaco

      That’s hooch. It’s all good! Don’t stress about the liquid… just add a bit more flour and stir it in but it should be soupy or yogurt-like as you grow it initially. The moisture from the grape juice and the grape skins will kick the fermenting off correctly. If it’s too dry you won’t have an adequate environment for fermenting. Watch for the bubbles and then pull the grape skins out and keep feeding for a few days.

  9. Misty Schreiner

    I just found your website and I’m so excited to start try some of the recipes. Question: is the mix supposed to be very runny? I measured two cups of everything and it is very much like a liquid compared to what I’m used to seeing in a sourdough starter. Thank you!

    • Farrell Monaco

      Hi Misty! Are you referring to the initial grow or are you working with the starter baking bread? Initially it can be quite runny as it begins to ferment. But as you feed it, you can add more flour and less water to make it more of a Greek yogurt consistency. It will work either way, though, no matter how you hydrate the starter. 🙂

  10. Gina Somma

    Farrell I always love reading anything that you write, it’s always written so well, with so much knowledge, love and researched to the core! , I had never heard of using the grapes to make a starter. I can’t wait to try it since i am always looking for new bread recipes!
    Thank you for sharing all your wonderful ideas. I wanted to give you 5 ***** but for some reason the webpage stopped at 2 and wouldn’t allow me to add more!
    Keep up your good work!
    Gina Somma

  11. I bake regularly. I suggest the string around the Pompei loaf kept it from flattening and made it easier to move in the oven.

  12. Great recipe! One question though: are you supposed to leave the leaven for another 4-5 days after step 3, or just in total? If I don’t have that long will it seriously affect my bread?


    • Farrell Monaco

      It took me about 7 days to fully activate my starter from start to finish. When you see bubbles begin to form and it responds after feedings (reacts, grows, bubbles)… you’re good to go! Refrigerate it afterwards though!

  13. Hi Farrell! I just wanted to say thank you so much for posting these reconstructions of ancient recipes, I named my starter Leaven Against Thebes! 😛

  14. Do you know if the ancient Romans bolted their flour?

    • Farrell Monaco

      Hi Jeff! If by bolted you mean refining, then yes. ’Finer’ flour was used to make lighter (and ‘whiter’) loaves for the elite market. Bran or whole wheat loaves were made with the coarser flours and were for daily consumption or working class populations. Bear in mind that all flour was generally coarser during this time as the quern stones that ground the flour were a rough composite of limestone and volcanic tufa. Donkeys or slaves turned the mill to grind a very coarse version of flour that was then further ground or sieved for finer flours making lighter loaves. This was labour intensive and time consuming!

  15. I have been making bread with leaven for >40 years, and I’ve had a culture from Pôilan bakery in Paris for >25 years. I have several thoughts. I’ve made vigorous leavers with just whole rye or wheat flour and water. No grapes or grape juice or anything else. It takes several days in a warm place, and sometimes longer. Just feed it every day and throw some out if it gets too big before becoming lively. The yeasts and bacteria come from the flour and environment.

    The other thing is that Pliny says that the dried leaven cakes cakes are boiled with spelt flour. This would certainly kill any yeast and bacteria in them rendering them sterile. Any leavening would then come from another source, not the cakes.

    • Farrell Monaco

      You’re right, Jeff. That is a curious statement to take bread dough and boil it (therefore killing lactobacilli) and starting from scratch attempting to sour it after this process. It’s also odd that he states to add salt which we also know can kill the leaven depending on quantity. At least he states that is was more common that a bit of dough from the day before was used for the next day’s baking! – Farrell

      • Bob McGowan

        Just found your site and will be trying out the recipes soon.
        But, you included a “link” in your response to Jeff, but your page does not allow selecting any text, nor is it a “hot link” that can be clicked. And it is long and complex enough to make typing it by hand a bit difficult. Any chance this could be made more user friendly?

  16. I made this bread as a project with my kids. We all had a lot of fun and the bread turned out great! Definitely trying more of these recipes! Thanks so much for your page and posting these.

  17. Cristina Dolcetti

    Lovely recipe, my only problem is finding a cheese cloth

    • Farrell Monaco

      Hi Cristina! Are you in Italy or North America? If you cannot find it in local cooking shops or grocery stores, try looking on Amazon. You can buy it fairly inexpensively and in bulk as well.

  18. Thank you Farrell for sharing all these great recipes from the past. I had no idea! I wish this was thought in school as part of the real history

  19. Robert Erickson

    Two questions: 1) Is there a preferred grape? Red or Green? 2) In the picture of the wrapped grapes, it appears to be on a bed of multi-colored something. Is that the bowl or something else? Thanks.

    • Farrell Monaco

      Hi Robert! I won’t specify which types of grapes as Pliny did not specify either. I used simple red/purple table grapes. The photo you refer to is the grapes inside the cheese cloth. The knot is the white part. The juice from the grapes has soaked the cheese cloth bag making it look dark purple. Let me know how it works out for you! Farrell

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